Основные команды Ubuntu

Ubuntu

Привилегии

sudo command — run command as root
sudo -s — open a root shell
sudo -s -u user — open a shell as user
sudo -k — forget sudo passwords
gksudo command — visual sudo dialog (GNOME)
kdesudo command — visual sudo dialog (KDE)
sudo visudo — edit /etc/sudoers
gksudo nautilus — root file manager (GNOME)
kdesudo konqueror — root file manager (KDE)
passwd — change your password

Дисплей

sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart — restart X and return to login (GNOME)
sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart — restart X and return to login (KDE)
(file) /etc/X11/xorg. conf — display configuration
sudo dexconf — reset xorg.conf configuration Ctrl+Alt+Bksp — restart X display if frozen Ctrl+Alt+FW — switch to tty N Ctrl+Alt+F7 — switch back to X display

Системные сервисы

start service — start job service (Upstart) stop service — stop job service (Upstart) status service — check if service is running (Upstart)
/etc/init.d/service start — start service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service stop — stop service (SysV) /etc/init.d/service status — check service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service restart — restart service (SysV)
runlevel — get current runlevel

Менеджер пакетов

apt-get update — refresh available updates
apt-get upgrade — upgrade all packages
apt-get dist-upgrade — upgrade with package replacements; upgrade Ubuntu version
apt-get install pkg — install pkg
apt-get purge pkg — uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove — remove obsolete packages
apt-get -f install — try to fix broken packages dpkg —configure -a — try to fix broken packages
dpkg -i pkg.deb — install file pkg.deb
(file) /etc/apt/sources.list — APT repository list

Сеть

ifconfig — show network information
iwconfig — show wireless information
sudo iwlist scan — scan for wireless networks
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart — reset
network for manual configurations
(file) /etc/network/interfaces — manual configuration
ifup interface — bring interface online ifdown interface — disable interface

Управление специальными пакетами

ubuntu-desktop — standard Ubuntu environment kubuntu-desktop — KDE desktop xubuntu-desktop — XFCE desktop ubuntu-minimal — core Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-standard — standard Ubuntu utilities ubuntu-restricted-extras — non-free, but useful kubuntu-restricted-extras — KDE of the above xubuntu-restricted-extras — XFCE of the above build-essential — packages used to compile programs
linux-image-generic — latest generic kernel image
linux-headers-generic — latest build headers

Фаервол

ufw enable — turn on the firewall
ufw disable — turn off the firewall
ufw default allow — allow all connections by
default
ufw default deny — drop all connections by default
ufw status — current status and rules ufw allow port — allow traffic on port ufw deny port — block port ufw deny from ip — block ip adress

Имена приложений

nautilus — file manager (GNOME) dolphin — file manager (KDE) konqueror — web browser (KDE) kate — text editor (KDE) gedit — text editor (GNOME)

Системные

Recovery — Type the phrase «REISUB» while holding down Alt and SysRq (PrintScrn) with about 1 second between each letter. Your system will reboot.
lsb_release -a — get Ubuntu version uname -r — get kernel version uname -a — get all kernel information

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